Monday, December 04, 2017

Uso de Bismuto y Molibdeno como catalizador en el proceso SOHIO 

Catalizador Monsanto R-Glicidol

Oxidación aeróbica simple y práctica de alcoholes catalizada por un clúster de tetra rutenio (u-oxo)

Catalizador de Wilkinson

Proyecto Final Inorganica II

Omar Betanzos Sánchez 150729

Catalizador de Hoveyda-Grubbs

Catalizador de Hoveyda-Grubbs para la metátesis de olefinas y un poco de su uso comercial.

Proceso de Cativa.

Catalizadores de paladio

En el 2010, 3 científicos ganaron el premio nobel por el uso de catalizadores de paladio (0) para realizar reacciones de acoplamiento.

Catalizador de Grubbs video

Proyecto Final Inorgánica II

Por: Fernando Edsel Guerra Vega 150535

Friday, December 01, 2017

Hidroformilación con Catalizadores de Rodio

Transmembrane helix connectivity in Orai1 controls two gates for calcium-dependent transcription

The channel Orai1 requires Ca2+ store depletion in the endoplasmic reticulum and an interaction with the Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to mediate Ca2+ signaling. Alterations in Orai1-mediated Ca2+ influx have been linked to several pathological conditions including immunodeficiency, tubular myopathy, and cancer. We screened large-scale cancer genomics data sets for dysfunctional Orai1 mutants. Five of the identified Orai1 mutations resulted in constitutively active gating and transcriptional activation. Our analysis showed that certain Orai1 mutations were clustered in the transmembrane 2 helix surrounding the pore, which is a trigger site for Orai1 channel gating. Analysis of the constitutively open Orai1 mutant channels revealed two fundamental gates that enabled Ca2+ influx: Arginine side chains were displaced so they no longer blocked the pore, and a chain of water molecules formed in the hydrophobic pore region. Together, these results enabled us to identify a cluster of Orai1 mutations that trigger Ca2+ permeation associated with gene transcription and provide a gating mechanism for Orai1.

Nanoparticle targeting to the endothelium during normothermic machine perfusion of human kidneys

Ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is a new clinical strategy to assess and resuscitate organs likely to be declined for transplantation, thereby increasing the number of viable organs available. Short periods of NMP provide a window of opportunity to deliver therapeutics directly to the organ and, in particular, to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs) that constitute the first point of contact with the recipient’s immune system. ECs are the primary targets of both ischemia-reperfusion injury and damage from preformed antidonor antibodies, and reduction of perioperative EC injury could have long-term benefits by reducing the intensity of the host’s alloimmune response. Using NMP to administer therapeutics directly to the graft avoids many of the limitations associated with systemic drug delivery. We have previously shown that polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) can serve as depots for long-term drug release, but ensuring robust NP accumulation within a target cell type (graft ECs in this case) remains a fundamental challenge of nanomedicine. We show that surface conjugation of an anti-CD31 antibody enhances targeting of NPs to graft ECs of human kidneys undergoing NMP. Using a two-color quantitative microscopy approach, we demonstrate that targeting can enhance EC accumulation by about 5- to 10-fold or higher in discrete regions of the renal vasculature. In addition, our studies reveal that NPs can also nonspecifically accumulate within obstructed regions of the vasculature that are poorly perfused. These quantitative preclinical human studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential for targeted nanomedicines delivered during ex vivo NMP.

 NEODIMIO  ¡no te lo pierdas!