Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Chronology of Quantum Mechanics, Molecular, Atomic, Nuclear, and Particle Physics

1930Erwin Schrodinger predicts the zitterbewegung motion.
1930Fritz London explains van der Waals forces as due to the interacting fluctuating dipole moments between molecules.
1931John Lennard-Jones proposes the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential.
1931Irene Joliot-Curie and Frederic Joliot-Curie observe but misinterpret neutron scattering in parafin.
1931Wolfgang Pauli puts forth the neutrino hypothesis to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in beta decay.
1931Linus Pauling discovers resonance bonding and uses it to explain the high stability of symmetric planar molecules.
1931Paul Dirac shows that charge conservation can be explained if magnetic monopoles exist.
1931Harold Urey discovers deuterium using evaporation concentration techniques and spectroscopy.
1932John Cockcroft and Thomas Walton split lithium and boron nuclei using proton bombardment.
1932James Chadwick discovers the neutron.
1932Werner Heisenberg presents the proton-neutron model of the nucleus and uses it to explain isotopes.
1932Carl David Anderson discovers the positron.
1933Max Delbruck suggests that quantum effects will cause photons to be scattered by an external electric field.
1934Irene Joliot-Curie and Frederic Joliot-Curie bombard aluminum atoms with alpha particles to create artificially radioactive phosphorus-30.
1934Leo Szilard realizes that nuclear chain reactions may be possible.
1934Enrico Fermi formulates his theory of beta decay.
1934Lev Landau tells Edward Teller that nonlinear molecules may have vibrational modes which remove the degeneracy of an orbitally degenerate state.
1934Enrico Fermi suggests bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons to make a 93 proton element.
1934Pavel Cerenkov reports that light is emitted by relativistic particles traveling in a nonscintillating liquid.
1935Hideki Yukawa presents a theory of strong interactions and predicts mesons.
1935Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen put forth the EPR paradox.
1935Niels Bohr presents his analysis of the EPR paradox.
1936Eugene Wigner develops the theory of neutron absorption by atomic nuclei.
1936Hans Jahn and Edward Teller present their systematic study of the symmetry types for which the Jahn-Teller effect is expected.
1937H. Hellmann finds the Hellmann-Feynman theorem.
1937Seth Neddermeyer, Carl Anderson, J.C. Street, and E.C. Stevenson discover muons using cloud chamber measurements of cosmic rays.
1939Richard Feynman finds the Hellmann-Feynman theorem.
1939Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman bombard uranium salts with thermal neutrons and discover barium among the reaction products.
1939Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch determine that nuclear fission is taking place in the Hahn-Strassman experiments.
1942Enrico Fermi makes the first controlled nuclear chain reaction.
1942Ernst Stuckelberg introduces the propagator to positron theory and interprets positrons as negative energy electrons moving backwards through spacetime.
1943Sin-Itiro Tomonaga publishes his paper on the basic physical principles of quantum electrodynamics.
1947Willis Lamb and Robert Retheford measure the Lamb-Retheford shift.
1947Cecil Powell, C.M.G. Lattes, and G.P.S. Occhialini discover the pi-meson by studying cosmic ray tracks.
1947Richard Feynman presents his propagator approach to quantum electrodynamics.
1948Hendrik Casimir predicts a rudimentary attractive Casimir force on a parallel plate capacitor.
1951Martin Deutsch discovers positronium.
1953R. Wilson observes Delbruck scattering of 1.33 MeV gamma-rays by the electric fields of lead nuclei.
1954Chen Yang and Robert Mills investigate a theory of hadronic isospin by demanding local gauge invariance under isotopic spin space rotations; first non-Abelian gauge theory.
1955Owen Chamberlain, Emilio Segre, Clyde Wiegand, and Thomas Ypsilantis discover the antiproton.
1956Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan detect antineutrinos.
1956Chen Yang and Tsung Lee propose parity violation by the weak force.
1956Chien Shiung Wu discovers parity violation by the weak force in decaying cobalt.
1957Gerhart Luders proves the CPT theorem.
1957Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert Marshak, and Ennackel Sudarshan propose a V-A Lagrangian for weak interactions.
1958Marcus Sparnaay experimentally confirms the Casimir effect.
1959Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm predict the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
1960R.G. Chambers experimentally confirms the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
1961Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Neeman discover the Eightfold Way patterns; SU(3) group.
1961Jeffery Goldstone considers the breaking of global phase symmetry.
1962Leon Lederman shows that the electron neutrino is distinct from the muon neutrino.
1963Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig propose the quark/aces model.
1964Peter Higgs considers the breaking of local phase symmetry.
1964J.S. Bell shows that all local hidden variable theories must satisfy Bell's inequality.
1964Val Fitch and James Cronin observe CP violation by the weak force in the decay of K mesons.
1967Steven Weinberg puts forth his electroweak model of leptons.
1969J.C. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. Holt propose a polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality.
1970Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos, and Luciano Maiani propose the charm quark.
1971Gerard 't Hooft shows that the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg electroweak model can be renormalized.
1972S. Freedman and J.C. Clauser perform the first polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality.
1973David Politzer proposes the asymptotic freedom of quarks.
1974Burton Richter and Samuel Ting discover the psi meson implying the existence of the charm quark.
1975Martin Perl discovers the tauon.
1977S.W. Herb finds the upsilon resonance implying the existence of the beauty quark.
1982A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger perform a polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality that rules out conspiratorial polarizer communication.


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