Environmentalists want the Federal Government to investigate the health effects of the use of a common antibacterial ingredient.
Nano-silver has antibacterial properties and is used in a range of products including socks, children's toys and soap.
A report from Friends of the Earth said some of Australia's top microbiologists are worried about excessive use of the chemical.
The group's nanotechnology spokesman, Dr Gregory Crocetti, said the products could contribute to antibiotic-resistant viruses, which are responsible for a growing number of deaths.
"Now in Australian hospitals we see about 7,000 deaths from antibiotic resistant bacteria, these superbugs," he said.
"So these leading microbiologists are warning that this is just going to make this problem even worse."
Dr Crocetti said the Government should regulate the use of nano-silver.
"These products could easily say containing nano-silver, if the companies were forced to brand that on their products, they could label that.
"The Government needs to conduct some tests into that. There's been no testing into the use of silver or nano-silver products in the history of Australian regulation," he said.